Sources and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Uncontrolled Solid Waste Dumpsites in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria

Authors : Loremikan, A.G; Ngah, S.A.; Ubong, I.U.

Volume/Issue : Volume 5 - 2020, Issue 6 - June

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Household solid waste dumpsites located within the habitation on humans poses health risk via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation when Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are generated. This study investigated the concentration levels of PAHs in the soil at dumpsites for human health risk assessment at solid waste dumpsites located in Markets, Semi-industrial and Residential areas.  Materials and Method: Fifteen soil samples were collected in each season and analyzed at the Rivers State University, Institute of Pollution Studies Research Laboratory Gas Chromatography. Each of the season laboratory data were subjected to Ecological Toxicity, Environmental Risk Quotient and Incremental lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) Analysis.  Results: High Molecular weight (HMW) PAHs which are toxicologically relevant were detected in all the three classified dumpsites in both seasons with highest value of Chrysene in residential dumpsites during rainy season and Dibenez(a,h)anthracene in dry season. Each of classified dumpsites has average total PAHs values greater than 1mg/kg (>1) in Rainy season while in dry season, only market dumpsites has an average greater than 1mg/kg.. On health risk assessment, The PAHs generated at each classified dumpsite during Rainy season are from pyrogenic source since the Index (PI) values are all less the 1(<1), however residential dumpsites with PI > 1 in dry season indicates petrogenic source. The Risk Quotient (Negligible concentrations (RQNCs) values for the PAHs and the Risk Quotient Maximum Permissible concentration (RQMPCs) of individual PAHs were all less than 1.0, indicating that the listed PAHs pose a moderate level of ecological risk in these study sites since they are all less than the threshold ecological risk values of 0.8mg/kg. The Incremental Life Cancer Risk (ILCR) values of the PAHs on most sites during Rainy season are higher than 1 x10-6 which by USEPA standard, indicates risk of cancer. However, the Dry season shows lesser values

Keywords : Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Pyrogenic, Health Risk.


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