Role of Antimcrobial Agents in Periodontal TherapyA Review on Prevailing TreatmentModalities

Authors : Dr. Uma Sudhakar; Dr.Snophia Suresh; Dr. Tamannabasha; Dr. Ekambareswaran; Dr. Mahesh Kumar

Volume/Issue : Volume 5 - 2020, Issue 10 - October

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Periodontitis, a common inflammatory condition associated with progressive damage of supporting structures of the teeth caused by the hosttissue reaction to the pathogenic bacterial colonies and also by the endotoxins produced by the bacteria. Most likely, higher concentration of microbial colonization in the sub-gingival plaque produces gingivitis and specific forms of chronic periodontitis (non-specific plaque hypothesis). Similarly, specific microbial colonization triggers aggressive periodontal diseases because of their extremely high virulence (specific plaque hypothesis). However, the particular mechanisms by which periodontal supporting tissues are damaged still remains indefinite. Hence the present review was aimed to give a brief knowledge and rationale about the role of antibiotics in periodontal disease.A structured literature search for articles written in the English language in PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases from 1980 to till date was retrieved by using MeSH terms “periodontal therapy”, “antibiotics and periodontitis”, “Management of periodontitis”, “oral and systemic antibiotics” ”Periodontal Complications” “antimicrobial oral therapy”, “systemic antibiotics and Periodontal treatment” and “prognosis in periodontitis”. Systemic antibiotics therapy usually comprise of monotherapeutic agents like β- lactams antibiotics (amoxicillin, combined with clavulanic acid), metronidazole, tetracycline’s (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline etc.), clindamycin and quinolones (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin). Local antimicrobial therapies are specifically recommended for residual pockets or at site where mechanical management becomes difficult to regulate the repeated progression of a microbiota noxious to supportive tissue health.A successful antimicrobial therapy is effectively influenced by the host-immune response, periodontal status of the patient, the microbial ecology of the entire oro-pharyngeal cavity and various local and systemically associated risk factors.One should always remember that antibiotics should be used only as a conjunction with mechanical instrumentation rather than primary treatment option since an inappropriate use will ultimately result in existence of resistance and incompetence. Thus proper, optimal, effective and cautious use of systemic or local antibiotics is highly critical specifically during the course of periodontal disease management.

Keywords : Antibacterial Therapy, Aggressive Periodontics, Atridox, Atrisite, Metronidazole


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