Prevalence of substance
abuse remains very high globally and particularly in
third world countries.-where people turn to cheap,
equally potent and dangerous principles from animals
and are collectively called Psychoactive Faunas - the
group of animals whose body parts, secretions or
excretions/wastes contain one or more substances; which
taken in a sufficiently high dose via any route of
administration, possess the potential to alter an
individual’s cognitive state and behavior. Except for wild
life related laws in most countries, there are no specific
laws regulating the increasing abuse of these substances
in most countries of the globe.
Methods:- Preliminary search was performed via
Google® to obtain potential keywords that would be
representatives of “Abuse of Psychoactive fauna”
Animal’s name and possible street names on
PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar.
Secondary searches were also carried out.
Results:- The database search yielded 39,187 records.
Twenty one (21) Journal Articles, Five (5) Newspaper
reports, One (1) Policy document, total Twenty seven
(27) studies included in the present review.
Discussion and Conclusion:- The findings demonstrated
evidences of the abuse of psychoactive fauna different
parts of the globe of whole lizard, its tail or dung; snake
venom or skin; toad venom; whole scorpion, its tail or
venom; cattle dung; human excreta or urine; whole
hallucinogenic fish; cow dung; hen dung; spider web and
more recently goat or sheep dung. Lizard is the currently
the most cited of psychoactive faunas of abuse apart
from snakes, toads, and scorpions that have been
Scientific Significance:- Majority of previous reviews on
substance abuse have not acknowledged psychoactive
faunas as potential sources of drug of abuse. Our
findings has provided documented evidences of their use.