Protective Effect of Allium cepa L.(onion) Against Potassium Bromate-Induced Hematological, Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations in Rats

Authors : Nadia Mohamed Kermani; Amera Mohamed Aldaek; Fikry Ali Abushofa; Fathia Gadri Jaat

Volume/Issue : Volume 5 - 2020, Issue 11 - November

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Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely consumed and cultivated vegetable crops in the world, which are effective antioxidants due to their capability to scavenge free radicals. Potassium bromate is a chemical additive mixed in flour to improve the action of gluten and helps to strengthen and soften the dough. Several studies have shown that a higher amount of Potassium bromate can cause toxicological effects and several diseases. The study aims to investigate the protective and curative effects of red onion extract against KBrO3 toxicity on hematological, renal function and histology of the kidney tissues of Wistar rats. 36 Wistar male rats were divided into 6 batches. Over a 4-week experimental period, group I rats served as a control and group II received 100 mg/kg b.w of KBrO3 on the 24th and 27th days. group III received red onion juice at 1ml/100 g bw every day and 100 mg/kg bw of KBrO3 on the 24th and 27th days. Group IV received 50 mg/kg bw of KBrO3 twice per week, group V received red onion juice daily at 1ml/100 g bw and 50 mg/kg bw of KBrO3 twice per week, and group VI received 30 mg/kg KBrO3 every day. The rats were weighed and sacrificed after completion of the treatment, and blood was sampled for haematological and biochemical analysis. The histopathological investigation was performed for the kidney tissues of all groups. The results showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in WBC in groups which received 30 and 50 mg/kg bw of KBrO3 and a significant decrease in PLT in the group that received 100 mg/kg bw of KBrO3 compared to the controls. Additionally, significant increases in urea, uric acid, creatinine, were found in all groups treated with KBrO3. However, the administration of red onion juice along with KBrO3 led to improvements in the parameters studied. Histopathological examination of kidney tissue showed dilation of the Bowman's capsule, haemorrhage, degeneration, congestion, and necrosis. it is clear that the toxic effects of KBrO3 were more pronounced in rats receiving single doses of 100 mg/kg bw. This indicates that a higher dose leads to worse effects. The results for a regular dose of 30 mg/kg also indicate the risk of daily exposure to potassium bromate

Keywords : Potassium bromate, histopathology, hematology, red onion, kidney, Wistar rats.


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