Flat- racing is a common, non- amateur,
male- dominant sport of India. The jockeys have to ride
multiple times during one race, making it essential for
them to maintain high levels of fitness in terms of
muscular strength, flexibility, endurance and stamina.
Lower cross syndrome (LCS) is characterized by specific
patterns of muscle weakness and tightness. The
abdominal and the gluteal muscles are commonly
categorized as weak, whereas, the iliopsoas and spinal
extensors are commonly categorized as tight muscles in
this syndrome leading to postural imbalances which lead
to non- specific Low Back Pain in future. Hence, this
study aims to find out the prevalence of lower cross
syndrome in professional flat- race Jockeys.
Methods: Endurance of abdominal (internal and
external oblique muscles) and trunk extensor muscles,
flexibility of bilateral iliopsoas muscles and hamstring
muscles and strength of hip extensor and hip external
rotator muscles was measured on 46 professional male
jockeys. Results: The result suggests that the jockeys
were found to have good relationship between the Left
and Right lateral abdominal muscles (left: right side
bridge test- McGill’s Criterion), good (Grade 4; Manual
Muscle Test- Kendall scale) strength of bilateral hip
extensor and hip external rotator muscles; poor
endurance of Trunk extensor muscles (Biering- Sorenson
test- Demoulin et. Al) and tightness of bilateral iliopsoas
(Modified Thomas Test) and hamstring muscles (V sit
and reach Test).Conclusion: 23.9% of jockeys had lower
cross syndrome, the remaining are at high risk of
developing Lower cross syndrome in future.
Additionally, Trunk extensor muscle endurance was
Keywords : Jockey, flat racing, equestrian sports, Lower cross syndrome, Endurance, low back pain.