Molecular Mechanism of Psychosis

Authors : Evelyn. U. Ikpeama, Ify. L. Nwaogazie, Anthonet. N. Ezejiofor

Volume/Issue : Volume 6 - 2021, Issue 10 - October

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Biomedical research in line with most baseline studies, has proven biological alterations due to exposure to some heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic have been implicated in patients with neurochemical imbalance, pharmacological viewpoint, and brain imaging as part of psychotic prognosis. Some of the most prevailing psychological conditions with notable tendencies of downheartedness and transience are depression and schizophrenia. However, the basal pathophysiology of these conditions from the pre symptomatic and diagnosed point of view, implicates dopamine, norepinephrine, and 5-HT neurotransmitters. Maternal Immune Activation (MIA) triggered by immunological changes from external factors mutating against the immune cells from predisposition to heavy metals leads to priming of the Central Nervous System (CNS) microglia cells which can create a pathway to expose offspring to psychosis. Based on this information, psychosis has been framed due to deficiency in neural signaling in homeostatic imbalance from oxidative stress, metabolic cascades, influenza, and inflammatory response. This review gives details of the role played by neurotransmitters and heavy metals, their toxicity mechanisms, along with the health effect leading to mental disorders like psychosis, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia etc. Hence, the need for more research in this budding field and the challenges of identifying and developing new treatments for persons predisposed to lengthened risk of neurological autoimmune disorders should be considered.

Keywords : Psychosis, Heavy metals, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Neurology, Neurotransmitters, Schizophrenia. Abbreviations; ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, GSH: Glutathione, MIA: Maternal Immune Activation.


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