This study investigates the degree of karyolysis, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyokinesis of the
exposed epithelium against a control population, to evaluate the cytological features of the nucleus,
micronuclei frequency and other nuclear anomalies in buccal mucosal cells of tobacco users, and to
asses if micronuclei frequency can be used to access the genotoxicity in tobacco users. The study is
generally focused on creation of a biomarker that can be used to detect early pre cancers in smokers
this research was a case study. The study used qualitative and quantitative method to collect data
around thirty two smokers (32) and twenty (20) nonsmokers around Mulungushi University. The
approach used ethical clearance by asking the individuals who were willing to provide two buccal
swabs willingly which where smeared on the slides and fixed in 95% ethanol before the staining of
slides was done. After the samples were collected they were later stained using the papanicolaou stain.
Descriptive statistics were employed in analyzing data by using frequency distribution of the
responses from the respondents in SPSS and linear graphing using the excel sheet.
The results of the study revealed that tobacco has an effect on the buccal epitheliumand therefore
this test can be used as a biomarker for detecting mouth epithelial cellsthat are pre-cancerous in
smokers. When the binucleation analysis was done it was found that at least two cases where present
in smokers and none at all in non-smokers. The number of micronuclei detected in most smokers was
way greater than nonsmokers looking at the mean value of both in the results.
This study recommends more sensitization on the effects of smoking to people and to create more
awareness programs on pre cancers and cancer symptoms. More and further studies should be done
on the examination of mouth chromosomes for smokers against a control population to get dipper
understanding on the case study.