The previous nucleus model in the 1920s was
called internal electron theory that the atomic nucleus is
composed by only of protons and electrons in the nucleus.
Rutherford had already claimed that an electron-proton
pair could be bound in a tight state, which is in electron
deep orbit. These histories have been forgotten since the
introduction of neutrons as fundamental particles by
Heisenberg in 1932 because neither experimental nor
theoretical study to prove such orbits had been available
until recently. Now we have the experimental data of cold
fusion which is caused by this electron deep orbit. The
deep electron orbit was theoretically proved by J. Maly, J.
Vávra, Jean-Luc Paillet, and A. Meulenberg. They
showed that this electron deep orbit exists at a distance of
a few femto-metres from the nucleus. Thus, the electrons
in the electron deep orbit can shield the coulomb
repulsive force between nuclei and can cause Cold Fusion.
The mechanism of Cold Fusion can be explained by this
electron deep orbit theory and we have already had the
several experimental results related to this theory by the
researchers by showing the highly compressive hydrogen
atoms for the study of battery. Based on the mechanism
of electron deep orbit we have the experimental evidence
of the transmutation by cold fusion as was done by
Iwamura et al. They used D2 gas and target metal element
on the Pd which has small D2 inside Pd lattice on the
surface space site, and small D2(d2 and electron in deep
orbit) can be created at Tetrahedral site of Pd, and d2 can
fuse to the target metal element and cause transmutation.
They showed that atomic number increase is 4, therefore
d is 2, which clearly showed that d is constituted only by 2
protons not by a proton and a neutron. Therefore,
neutrons do not exist as a fundamental particle but
neutron is a pair of proton and electron in deep orbit.
And lately proton shape study showed that proton is NOT
spherical but has 3 protrusions due to three quarks.
Therefore, neutron beta decay must have very large
energy distribution of emitted electron based on the
correct neutron model, which was proved by soft x-ray
emission spectra during cold fusion of small D2. Thus, we
do not need the neutrino hypo by Pauli and Fermi, and no
neutrinos exist in this sense that neutrino hypo is
incorrect. Because the latest experiment by Collider to
produce neutrinos is well-designed, this kind of
experiments shows that some new fundamental particles
are generated but they are not neutrinos. Thus, I would
like to make a suggestion that the researchers must
understand the correct neutron model and nucleus model
and incorrect neutrino hypo, and they must change the
name of “neutrino” to the correct name, and modify the
particle physics based on the correct nuclear physics.
Experiments to prove the correct neutron model must be
Keywords : internal electron theory, neutron, beta-decay, neutrino, electron deep orbit, transmutation.