Assessing the Environmental Impact of Oil Spillage on Soil in Nigeria, using NNPC Depot as a Case Study

Authors : Oke, D. A; Raheem, S. B; Jayeola, W. A; Taiwo Y; Adebiyi, A. Y

Volume/Issue : Volume 7 - 2022, Issue 9 - September

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The sustainability of environment depends largely on the sustainable soil ecosystem as soil is taken as a key component of natural ecosystems. Soil contamination has been an environmental problem that is facing the whole regions of the world. The source of contamination may be either natural or anthropogenic. This research assessed the impact of oil spill on soil in Nigeria, using NNPC Depot as a case study. Soil samples were taken from the study area at four different points at a depth of 0.5-1.0 m using hand-dug auger. These samples were collected in sterilized bags and were well labelled. The following tests were conducted on the soil samples (contaminated and uncontaminated): Particle size distribution test, Compaction test, Atterberg Limit test and Permeability test. The particle size test revealed that the variation between the two samples (contaminated and uncontaminated) is insignificant but the presence of oil in the contaminated sample caused clod thereby making it difficult to pass through some sieve sizes. The Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) and the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) gave 11.40%, 1.98 g/cm³ and 9.50%, 1.81g/cm³ for both uncontaminated and contaminated samples respectively. Likewise, The Liquid Limits (LL) and plastic limit (Pl) gave 48 %, 33.5% and 33.6% and 14.9% for both uncontaminated and contaminated samples respectively. Also, the coefficient of permeability “k” gave 2.792 x 10-7 cm/s compared with the standard (soil permeability classes for Civil Engineering) falls within the impermeability limit (1 X 10-11 – 5 X 10-7 ) Thus the test results revealed that the contamination of soil by crude oil in NNPC Apata influenced the properties of the soil and subsequently leads to reduction in the values obtained for the entire test that the soil sample was subjected to.

Keywords : Environmental impact assessment (EIA), soil contamination, oil spills, NNPC Deport, Particle size distribution, Optimum moisture content, Maximum dry density, plastic limit, liquid limit and permeability.


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